Summary Master the techniques and theory of Japanese Karate with this easy-to-follow, illustrated martial arts guide. Read on the Scribd mobile app Download the free Scribd mobile app to read anytime, anywhere. Start your free 30 days. Page 1 of 1. Close Dialog Are you sure? Also remove everything in this list from your library. Are you sure you want to delete this list? Remove them from Saved? No Yes. Explore now. He was a leading figure of Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken style at that time. Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan karate, is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan.
In addition many Okinawans were actively teaching, and are thus also responsible for the development of karate on the main islands. This was a turbulent period in the history of the region. It includes Japan's annexation of the Okinawan island group in , the First Sino-Japanese War — , the Russo-Japanese War — , the annexation of Korea , and the rise of Japanese militarism — Funakoshi also gave Japanese names to many of the kata.
These were mostly political changes, rather than changes to the content of the forms, although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes.
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In Japan he was influenced by kendo, incorporating some ideas about distancing and timing into his style. He always referred to what he taught as simply karate, but in he built a dojo in Tokyo and the style he left behind is usually called Shotokan after this dojo. Shoto , meaning "pine wave", was Funakoshi's pen name and kan meaning "hall". The modernization and systemization of karate in Japan also included the adoption of the white uniform that consisted of the kimono and the dogi or keikogi —mostly called just karategi —and colored belt ranks. Both of these innovations were originated and popularized by Jigoro Kano , the founder of judo and one of the men Funakoshi consulted in his efforts to modernize karate.
It teaches a curriculum that emphasizes aliveness , physical toughness, and full contact sparring. Because of its emphasis on physical, full-force sparring , Kyokushin is now often called " full contact karate ", or " Knockdown karate " after the name for its competition rules. Many other karate organizations and styles are descended from the Kyokushin curriculum.
Sport karate places emphasis on exercise and competition. Weapons are an important training activity in some styles of karate. Karate training is commonly divided into kihon basics or fundamentals , kata forms , and kumite sparring.
Kihon means basics and these form the base for everything else in the style including stances, strikes, punches, kicks and blocks. Karate styles place varying importance on kihon. Typically this is training in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka. Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs. These postures are based on idealized combat applications. The applications when applied in a demonstration with real opponents is referred to as a Bunkai. The Bunkai shows how every stance and movement is used. Bunkai is a useful tool to understand a kata.
To attain a formal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent performance of specific required kata for that level.
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The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used. Requirements for examinations vary among schools. It literally means "meeting of hands. Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably. Full contact karate has several variants. Knockdown karate such as Kyokushin uses full power techniques to bring an opponent to the ground. In kickboxing variants for example K-1 , the preferred win is by knockout.
Sparring in armour, bogu kumite , allows full power techniques with some safety. Sport kumite in many international competition under the World Karate Federation is free or structured with light contact or semi contact and points are awarded by a referee.
In structured kumite yakusoku , prearranged , two participants perform a choreographed series of techniques with one striking while the other blocks. The form ends with one devastating technique hito tsuki. In free sparring Jiyu Kumite , the two participants have a free choice of scoring techniques.
The allowed techniques and contact level are primarily determined by sport or style organization policy, but might be modified according to the age, rank and sex of the participants. Depending upon style, take-downs , sweeps and in some rare cases even time-limited grappling on the ground are also allowed. Free sparring is performed in a marked or closed area. The bout runs for a fixed time 2 to 3 minutes.
The time can run continuously iri kume or be stopped for referee judgment. In full contact karate kumite, points are based on the results of the impact, rather than the formal appearance of the scoring technique. These guidelines apply both in the dojo training hall and in everyday life. Okinawan karate uses supplementary training known as hojo undo. This utilizes simple equipment made of wood and stone. The makiwara is a striking post. The nigiri game is a large jar used for developing grip strength. These supplementary exercises are designed to increase strength , stamina , speed , and muscle coordination.
Karate is divided into style organizations.
Tournaments are designed to match members of opposing schools or styles against one another in kata, sparring and weapons demonstration. They are often separated by age, rank and sex with potentially different rules or standards based on these factors. The tournament may be exclusively for members of a particular style closed or one in which any martial artist from any style may participate within the rules of the tournament open. WKF karate competition has two disciplines: sparring kumite and forms kata. Sparring matches are typically divided by weight, age, gender, and experience.
The World Union of Karate-do Federations WUKF  offers different styles and federations a world body they may join, without having to compromise their style or size. The WUKF accepts more than one federation or association per country. Sport organizations use different competition rule systems.
Full contact karate rules used by Kyokushinkai , Seidokaikan and other organizations. Bogu kumite full contact with protective shielding of targets rules are used in the World Koshiki Karate-Do Federation organization. Karate, although not widely used in mixed martial arts , has been effective for some MMA practitioners. In Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shotokan Karate, adopted the Dan system from the judo founder Jigoro Kano  using a rank scheme with a limited set of belt colors. Other Okinawan teachers also adopted this practice. The Dan progression continues from 1st Dan Shodan, or 'beginning dan' to the higher dan grades.
Yudansha typically wear a black belt. Requirements of rank differ among styles, organizations, and schools. Speed and power are added at higher grades. Minimum age and time in rank are factors affecting promotion. Testing consists of demonstration of techniques before a panel of examiners. This will vary by school, but testing may include everything learned at that point, or just new information. The demonstration is an application for new rank shinsa and may include kata , bunkai , self-defense, routines, tameshiwari breaking , and kumite sparring.
This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism. He considered courtesy of prime importance. He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him. He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight. It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves. He promoted the character trait of personal conviction. In "time of grave public crisis, one must have the courage Thus the word "karate" was originally a way of expressing "martial art from China.
Sino-Japanese relations have never been very good, and especially at the time of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria , referring to the Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect. But in , the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art. It is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times. It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines. Examples include aikido , judo , kyudo , and kendo.
It is "The Way of the Empty Hand". Karate has grown in popularity in Africa, particularly in South Africa and Ghana. Karate began in Canada in the s and s as Japanese people immigrated to the country. Karate was practised quietly without a large amount of organization. Masaru Shintani , at the age of 13, began to study Shorin-Ryu karate in the Japanese camp under Kitigawa. In Otsuka invited Shintani to join his organization Wado Kai, and in he asked Shintani to officially call his style Wado. In Canada during this same time, karate was also introduced by Masami Tsuruoka who had studied in Japan in the s under Tsuyoshi Chitose.
In the late s Shintani moved to Ontario and began teaching karate and judo at the Japanese Cultural Centre in Hamilton. In , Otsuka publicly promoted Shintani to hachidan 8th dan and privately gave him a kudan certificate 9th dan , which was revealed by Shintani in Shintani and Otsuka visited each other in Japan and Canada several times, the last time in two years prior to Otsuka's death.
Shintani died 7 May France Shotokan Karate was created in by Tsutomu Ohshima. Hiroshi Shirai , one of the original instructors sent by the JKA to Europe along with Kase, Enoeda and Kanazawa, moved to Italy in and quickly established a Shotokan enclave that spawned several instructors who in their turn soon spread the style all over the country. By Shotokan karate was the most spread martial art in Italy apart from Judo.
Due to past conflict between Korea and Japan, most notably during the Japanese occupation of Korea in the early 20th century, the influence of karate in Korea is a contentious issue.
click here It was during this time that many of the Korean martial arts masters of the 20th century were exposed to Japanese karate. After regaining independence from Japan, many Korean martial arts schools that opened up in the s and 50's were founded by masters who had trained in karate in Japan as part of their martial arts training. Choi, a significant figure in taekwondo history, had also studied karate under Funakoshi.
Karate also provided an important comparative model for the early founders of taekwondo in the formalization of their art including hyung and the belt ranking system. The original taekwondo hyung were identical to karate kata. Eventually, original Korean forms were developed by individual schools and associations. Although the World Taekwondo Federation and International Taekwon-Do Federation are the most prominent among Korean martial arts organizations, tang soo do schools that teach Japanese karate still exist as they were originally conveyed to Won Kuk Lee and his contemporaries from Funakoshi.
Karate appeared in the Soviet Union in the mids, during Nikita Khrushchev 's policy of improved international relations. The first Shotokan clubs were opened in Moscow's universities. In , karate practice became legal again, but under strict government regulations, only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in did independent karate schools resume functioning, and so federations were formed and national tournaments in authentic styles began.
Yoseikan had been founded by Minoru Mochizuki , a master of multiple Japanese martial arts, who had studied Karate with Gichin Funakoshi , thus the Yoseikan style was heavily influenced by Shotokan. One of the early members of this branch was Andy Sherry who had previously studied Jujutsu with Jack Britten. Bell had been corresponding with the JKA in Tokyo asking for his grades to be ratified in Shotokan having apparently learnt that Murakami was not a designated representative of the JKA. The JKA obliged, and without enforcing a grading on Bell, ratified his black belt on 5 February , though he had to relinquish his Yoseikan grade.
Keinosuke Enoeda came to England at the same time as Kanazawa, teaching at a dojo in Liverpool. Kanazawa left the UK after 3 years and Enoeda took over. Kase sought to return the practice of Shotokan Karate to its martial roots, reintroducing amongst other things open hand and throwing techniques that had been side lined as the result of competition rules introduced by the JKA. In Great Britain became the first team ever to take the World male team title from Japan after being defeated the previous year in the final.
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Tsutomu Ohshima began studying karate under Shotokan's founder, Gichin Funakoshi, while a student at Waseda University, beginning in In Ohshima received his godan fifth degree black belt , the highest rank awarded by Funakoshi. He founded the first university karate club in the United States at California Institute of Technology in Foster and Pat Burleson began teaching martial arts around the country. Karate spread rapidly in the West through popular culture.
In s popular fiction, karate was at times described to readers in near-mythical terms, and it was credible to show Western experts of unarmed combat as unaware of Eastern martial arts of this kind. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 23 September Martial art. This article is about the martial art.
For other uses, see Karate disambiguation. See also: Okinawan martial arts. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Japanese martial arts and Karate in Japan. Main article: Kihon. Main article: Karate kata.
Main article: Kumite. Main article: Dojo kun. See also: Korea under Japanese rule.
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